How to talk about poor performance with your employees: The Johari window matrix
The Johari window is a 2×2 matrix that outlines how we give and receive information about ourselves and others. The matrix encourages us to receive feedback to uncover our blind spots and share thoughts to remove the facade. Through introspection and by practicing self-awareness to figure out why the problems occur in the first place, we can prevent them from emerging in the future—or at least reduce the likelihood they appear.
The Johari window has two columns and two rows. The first column contains “things that I know about myself” and the second column contains “things that I don’t know about myself.”
The first row contains “things that the group knows about me” and the second row contains “things that the group doesn’t know about me.”
It’s important to emphasize that the information in these rows and columns isn’t static. Instead, it moves from one pane to another as the mutual trust of the team grows. In turn, that makes certain panes smaller and others bigger. Since we want to have as much trust and open communication as possible in the team, we should strive to optimize the “Arena.” That will prevent many of the problems from occurring in the first place. And if they do, the team’s reaction will “kill the monster while it’s small.”
How to use the Arena to create trust so that you can talk about poor performance
The Arena is the place where everyone is informed. This is the first pane and it’s characterized by trust and free and open communication. The Arena is where you want your team to live. In essence, all information is public. Team members openly give and receive feedback and openly discuss even the most difficult team situations, challenges, and problems.
Here, you can talk with your employee about poor performance openly—and before it becomes something big and unmanageable. The bigger the Arena section is, the easier talking about hard things becomes.
As a manager, you can increase the Arena by having your employees share more information with each other in team meetings. You can also hold one-to-one meetings with employees to establish a bond of trust and understanding.
The questions like What should I know about your work situation that I still don’t know? and Tell me a good/bad thing that happened to you at work today? all serve to deepen the trust between the manager and the employee. And when that happens, talking about difficult things like poor performance becomes easier because the employee knows you trust them and have their back. And at the same time, you know that they won’t take it the wrong way.
How to deal with poor performance by unveiling Blind Spots
Blind Spots are the things that your team knows but that you yourself don’t know. When a team member speaks with others in the group and with you as the manager, they communicate all sorts of things that they themselves are not aware of. These can be verbal cues, mannerisms, intonation, and inflection—or the way they relate to other team members.
Because this part of the matrix has information known to the group but not known to the individual, the only way the employee can increase their awareness is by getting feedback from the group. As a consequence, the team member needs to develop a receptive attitude to encourage others to give feedback and ask for it openly and freely to illuminate every Blind Spot. By doing so, it will reframe the way employees think about feedback and will make it a personal development tool for them.
You can help your employees see the value of performance feedback by collecting 360 feedback from their team members and then, in an one-on-one meeting, asking the employee to self-evaluate.
Once they do that, have them compare the self-assessment sheet with the 360 assessment from their colleagues. Use that as a starting point, and the employee can begin bridging the gap by focusing on areas of improvement and asking colleagues to let them know how they are doing over time.
This is a great and non-intrusive way to show the importance of feedback when it comes to fixing your blind spots.
If you want to cut out poor performance, remove the Facade from your team’s culture
The Facade represents the information that you know but that the team does not.
For one reason or another, employees might keep certain information hidden from other team members and from you as the manager. Employees do this because they are scared that they will be hurt or rejected if other people find out about the ideas, opinions, or experiences they hold dear.
The assumption here is that, by revealing information, other members or the manager will judge or somehow punish the person. But the only way to test this assumption is by taking a risk and revealing the information to others. If the employee never takes a risk, they will never learn the reality (or unreality) of their assumptions.
The way to lift the cover on the Facade is for an employee to give feedback to the group and the manager about how they feel about what’s going on with the team.
The great thing about the Johari window is that every pane affects the others. So, if you’re giving feedback to another team member, it reduces their Blind Spots while lowering your Facade. If they do the same thing for you, they lower their Facade and reduce your Blind Spots.
Add it all up, and when it comes to giving and receiving feedback, it’s all about a mindset shift. If employees think about feedback as a growth tool, they will use it as a growth tool. To support these efforts, provide proper structure. For example, form sharing circles where the team members share one thing that makes working with someone else easy and one thing that makes them difficult to work with. This information can help build camaraderie and improve individual performance.
Activities like this help you get the team around a common purpose of growth. And that means you will need to hear things about yourself that you still need to work on, too. If you do enough of this, it will become that much easier to give feedback about even the most difficult problems.
Prevent the poor performance from occurring by disclosing the Unknown
The Unknown represents the things that nobody on the team knows.
This is the area where problems start to happen. It’s a place where the employee has biases they are not even aware of, which often causes problems in the first place.
The Unknown can be dealt with by introspection and figuring out where the basic assumptions that influence how the organization operates come from.
To help your team conquer the Unknown, you can teach them about the most common cognitive biases and mental models like confirmation bias, the scarcity-abundance model, Hanlon’s razor, and the Pareto principle.
You can do this in a one-on-one meeting with your employee. But you can also create group workshops or presentations to cover these topics. A great way to do this would be to pick out the cognitive biases you think are most common in your team, ask employees to make a presentation on each of them, and then discuss how each applies to your team.
This creates a deep and trusting bond within the team, strengthens it, and builds a positive working atmosphere where everyone learns something new about everyone else, themselves, and the team.
Johari window and poor performance
The more information you share with your team, the more trust you will have with your employees. When that happens, poor performance plummets because you don’t need to step in and have a difficult conversation. It’s almost immediately fixed by other colleagues providing feedback (i.e., eliminating Blind Spots), which should encourage the employee in question to fix the mistakes as soon as they become aware of them.
The beauty of the Johari window is that the system is self-manageable. Once employees understand the system and start using it, they will ask others for feedback to remove Blind Spots and will also share feedback to help their peers remove their own Blind Spots. Over time, this is how you cultivate a high-performance team.
You can use the Johari window to launch a conversation about poor performance by asking the following questions:
- Can you describe the good and bad things about your current job position? (Arena)
- What do you think you do quite well in your position? (Blind Spots)
- What do you think you need help with in your position? (Facade)
- What, in your opinion, prevents you from being more efficient/productive at your job? (Facade + Blind Spots)
- Who, in your opinion, is the most productive member of the team? (Facade)
- What can you do to elicit that kind of performance yourself? (Unknown)
- What is the one thing you will change to become a more productive team member? (Unknown + Facade + Blind Spots).
These questions are non-intrusive and won’t make your employee feel like they are being interrogated or grilled by the manager. But at the same time, they will start thinking about their poor performance.
The bottom line? The Johari window is good to use as a tool to fix poor performance. But it’s even better to use it as a problem-prevention tool.
Step-by-step guide on how to talk about poor performance
At the end of the day, talking about poor performance will never be easy for any manager. But the way that the best managers deal with poor performance is by preventing the problem from happening in the first place—as much as that’s possible.
You can also do that by making sure that job performance metrics are clear to everyone on the team, knowing when you should talk about poor performance with your team members, and using the Johari window matrix to help team members continuously improve their performance.
With that in mind, here is a step-by-step guide on how to talk about poor performance:
- Create clear metrics of job performance
- Have the right mindset
- Collect 360 feedback from other team members
- Have a one-to-one meeting
- Use the Johari window matrix
- Ask questions, listen, and understand
- Collaborate on how to fix their poor performance
- Set clear expectations for the future
By asking questions that make the employees think about their performance and behavior, they will find ways to fix their poor performance.
The takeaway? You can increase the size of the Arena by decreasing the size of Blind Spots and the Facade. In doing so, your team will practically manage themselves. And that’s the one of the biggest secrets you can learn from the best managers. They don’t do it all by themselves. They ask their team for help, and that’s exactly how they get it all done.